(Not necessarily in this order)
The Republican over-reach across state governments will create a huge pendulum swing of popular Progressivism, lead by liberal Democrats, back into immediate power. Infrastructure spending will increase dramatically and government will take an active part in growing labor and the middle class again in the United States. Through vast changes in taxation, Wealth disparity will drop again to historic lows.
The economic and environmental collapses of society will cause New Political Parties to emerge that are powerful enough to shake the two-party structure from their hold on power in the U.S.
The United States will declare a specific state of war-like intent against Pakistan's Military. It will be difficult but decisive. India will grow in power with strategic alliances across the globe.
Shocking revelations will cause the Judiciary branch to be transformed.
An environmental catastrophe will unite the country like never before.
Technological innovations will force a new wave of transparency in every level of American Government. This will be fought against hard but unsuccessfully by those in power. As a result, fewer wars will be fought, and the 'industrial war complex' will start producing spaceships instead of bombs.
Through technological breakthroughs, the very nature of banking will become massively decentralized and de-coupled from current nation-state banking oligarchies. The financial sector will shrink accordingly, but over all productivity will grow subsequently.
Alex Baldwin will become president of the United States of America. He will win by a shocking majority and will be deemed one of the best presidents America ever had.
Huge regional attitude differences will cause both California and Texas to split into two states. Puerto Rico will become a full-fledge state, Cuba will follow. Seeing swift transformational power from these new statehoods, led largely by aging-but-active Boomers wanting to visit 'all the states', Haiti, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic will also join. Lastly Mexico will join to become the 58th state of the newly re-formed United States of The Americas, which will move to a more parliamentary system. The country will have several official languages, but Miniaturized Instantaneous Translation Technology will make this distinction largely unimportant.
Global Warming will continue, flooding vast parts of the globe, pushing warmer weather farther north, and causing more extreme weather. Southern dry areas will become less and less habitable without massive cooling technologies. Countries in these areas will develop new digging technologies that move large amounts of the pollution underground.
Canada's population and GDP will grow exponentially, until it become a Global Super-power, called Canadana. Greenland's population will also boom, and become a pivotal power of the arctic ocean, bridging European and Canadanian interests. Alaska's political independence will be granted in an effort to not 'lose it to Canadana.' Within five years it will reapply to the United States of The Americas.
Massive volcanic activity in South America and large portions of Asia will have disastrous effects on populations but will temporarily help cool the planet down. South and Central American countries will create a new co-prosperity sphere that will raise the standard of living up drastically and reduce wealth disparity significantly.
Decriminalization laws for most drugs in the United States of The Americas and Canadana will cause most crime syndicates to lose power across much of the globe.
After the painful collapse of the failed banking system, The European Union will revive and grow significantly stronger by leveraging relationships across their third-world former colonies across the globe. More countries will join. They will establish the first bases in the inner-solar system. Mars will have an EU based colony before any other nation or group.
Global warming will drastically change the Russian landscape, weather, and lastly, temperament of the people. The country will start opening up democratically and will harness their vast resources to become a major exporter of everything. Russian tourism will become highly advanced, as vast unspoiled tracts of nature become increasingly sought after around the globe.
The 'Arab Spring' will sweep south across Africa, taking down dictators and ousting political entrenchment. New alliances will form that bring many countries into a new and better era. Stunning achievements will be achieved in energy production and energy storage, upending the oil-regimes of the past. The Middle East will experience a new intellectual and cultural Renaissance, ushering in a new type of moderate Moslem culture based on inclusivity and parity. Isreal society will become both less Zionistic and more expansionary. Their political system will become less focused on Judism's centrality and more focused on regional stability. Palestine will become a state within the country of Greater Isreal. The collapse of neighboring countries' political structures will open the door for a new EU style co-prosperity sphere that incorporates the entire Arabian Pennisulla, parts of North Africa, and Western Asia.
China's Communist government will collapse against the forces of modernity and economic upheavals across the globe. China's political system will be utterly transformed with less centralized power and more regional authority. Nevertheless, the Middle Kingdom will establish a permanent colony on the moon. From there they will swiftly colonize the inner system planets, and start asteroid belt bases.
New technologies will surface that allow people to tell when someone is lying. All established political structures will collapse and new more open ones form in their place. All political power will become massively decentralized and much more localized. This will be seen as a good thing.
Human-robotic hybridization will rapidly transform humanity. We will live significantly longer, and on less resources. Genetic engineering will further self-transform our species. New Racial distinctions will become scientifically genuine, rather than culturally-affixed surface distinctions. Humans will become Post-Humans. We will spread across the solar system. Then, in a surprising but simple discovery, across the vast gulfs of space to other star systems.
Earth will be all-but forgotten.